Medical Marijuana From Medicine, Legal And Islamic Law Perspective: A Review


  • Dr Siti Fatimah Medical Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur
  • Mohd Rahman Omar Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Fatimah Zanirah Nordin Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Dr Mohammad Naqib Universiti Teknologi Malaysia


medical marijuana, legal, medicine, Islamic perspective, shariah


Possessing, processing and distributing marijuana or cannabis is illegal in many countries, especially Malaysia. Individuals guilty of that act may face imprisonment and even a death sentence even though cannabis oil and its derivative in the medical field have become more prevalent and have been legalised in many countries and recently in Thailand, a Malaysian neighbour. The  Malaysian government is also evaluating and detailing the users and will have its final stand by 2022. Various studies proved marijuana to be beneficial for specific medical conditions. Thus, this paper aims to explore the current evidence of the use of medical marijuana from medical, legal and Islamic law views. The literature search was conducted online using various platforms such as google scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Medline EBSCO host and DOAJ. The search term includes "medical marijuana", "cannabis oils", "cannabis law", "Medical Marijuana Law", "cannabis"," marijuana legal", and "Islamic perspective". The content further discusses the medical perspective of marijuana, including its pharmacology, potential benefits and risks. In addition, the legal and Islamic views on medical marijuana, especially regarding the medical marijuana laws and Islamic rulings on marijuana use, will also be discussed.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Dr Siti Fatimah, Medical Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur

Medical Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Jalan Pahang, 50586 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur

Mohd Rahman Omar, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Medical Discipline Based Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800, Nilai Negeri Sembilan

Fatimah Zanirah Nordin , Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Medical Discipline Based Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800, Nilai Negeri Sembilan

Dr Mohammad Naqib, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Academy of Islamic Civilisation, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor.


Abrams, D. I., Jay, C. A., Shade, S. B., Vizoso, H., Reda, H., Press, S., Kelly, M. E., Rowbotham, M. C., & Petersen, K. L. (2007, February 12). Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomised placebo-controlled trial. Neurology, 68(7), 515–521. Https://

Al-’Aini, M. A. (2000). Kitab al-Ashribah. In al-Binayah Sharh al-Hidayah (1st ed., Vol. 12, pp. 370–371). Dar al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah.

Al-Bukhari, M. I. (2002). Al-Jami’ al-Musnad (Sahih al-Bukhari) (M. Zuhair, Ed.). Dar Tawq al-Najah.

Al-Jawziyyah, M. A. B. (1994). Zad al-Ma’ad fi Hady Khair al-Ibad (27th ed.). Maktabah al-Manar al-Islamiyyah.

Allam, S. I. (2022, May 17). Khuturah Ta’ati al-Mukhaddirat wa al-Tahdhir min al-Ittijar Fi-Ha (The Danger and Prohibition of Drug Use and Trading). Dar Al-Ifta’ al-Misriyyah.

Al-Naisaburi, M. H. Al-Q. (2000). Sahih Muslim (S. ’Abdul ’Aziz Ali Syeikh, Ed.; 2nd ed.). Dar al-Salam.

Al-Qarafi, A. Bin I. (2010). Al-Furuq: Anwar al-Buruq fi Anwa’ al-Furuq (1st ed.). Dar al-Nawadir.

Al-Saghnaqi, H. A. (2016). Nabdhah ’an ’Asr al-Sharih al-Imam al-Saghnaqi (Introduction to al-Imam al-Saghnaqi Biography). In A. A. Al-’Aziz Turki (Ed.), al-Nihayah fi Sharh al-Hidayah (1st ed., Vol. 1, p. 24). Markaz al-Dirasat al-Islamiyyah bi Kulliyyah al-Shari’ah wa al-Dirasat al-Islamiyyah.

Al-San’ani, M. I. (2006). Subul al-Salam Sharh Bulugh al-Maram (M. N. Al-D. Al-Albani, Ed.). Maktabah al-Ma‘arif.

Al-Zarkashi, B. Al-D. (1990). Zahr al-’Arish fi Tahrim al-Hashish ( al-S. A. Farj, Ed.; 1st ed.). Dar al-Wafa’ li al-Tiba’ah.

Bostwick, J. (2012). [PDF] Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana. | Semantic Scholar. Retrieved September 21 2022, from

Capriotti, T. (2016, January). Medical Marijuana. Home Healthcare Now, 34(1), 10–15. Https://

Cooper, Z. D. (2013, April 22). Comparison of the Analgesic Effects of Dronabinol and Smoked Marijuana in Daily Marijuana Smokers. Nature. Retrieved September 27 2022, from

Ghiabi, M., Maarefand, M., Bahari, H., & Alavi, Z. (2018). Islam and cannabis: Legalisation and religious debate in Iran. International Journal of Drug Policy, 56, 121–127. Https://

Hanbal, A. (1996). Musnad Ahmad (S. Al-Arna’ut, Ed.). Muassasah al-Risalah.

Haney, M., Gunderson, E. W., Rabkin, J., Hart, C. L., Vosburg, S. K., Comer, S. D., & Foltin, R. W. (2007, August 15). Dronabinol and Marijuana in HIV-Positive Marijuana Smokers.

Hilmy, I. (2022, March 31). Nasyid singer caught with ganja plants to be charged at PJ courts. The Star. Retrieved September 28 2022, from

JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(5), 545–554. Https://

Hill, K. P. (2015, June 23). Medical Marijuana for Treatment of Chronic Pain and Other Medical and Psychiatric Problems. JAMA, 313(24), 2474. Https://

Hoffmann, D. E., & Weber, E. (2010, April 22). Medical Marijuana and the Law. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(16), 1453–1457. Https://

Https:// (2014, June 1). American Academy of Ophthalmology. Retrieved September 27 2022, from

Ibn Hibban, M. Al-T. (1993). Sahih Ibn Hibban bi Tartib Ibn Balban. Muassasah al-Risalah.

Ibn Taimiyyah, A. A. Al-H. (1997). Al-Siyasah al-Shar’iyyah fi Islah al-Ra’i wa al-Ra’iyyah (1st ed.). Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Waqf, Da'wah, and Irshad.

Ibn Taimiyyah, A. A. Al-H. (2005). Majmu’ Fatawa (N. A. Fahad, Ed.; 3rd ed.). Dar Adwa’ al-Salaf.

JAKIM : E-SMAF V1. (n.d.). Retrieved 27 September 2022, from

Kramer, J. L. (2014, December 10). Medical marijuana for cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65(2), 109–122. Https://

Laursen, L. (2018, October 17). Canada Today Becomes the Second Country to Legalise Weed. Here's What It Can Learn From the First. Fortune. Retrieved September 21 2022, from

Laws of Malaysia Act 234: Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 [Revised-1980]. (1980). Ketua Pengarah Percetakan Negara.

Mark Anderson, D., Hansen, B., & Rees, D. I. (2013, May). Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption. The Journal of Law and Economics, 56(2), 333–369. Https://

Musty, R. E., & Rossi, R. (2001, January). Effects of Smoked Cannabis and Oral δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Nausea and Emesis After Cancer Chemotherapy. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, 1(1), 29–56. Https://

Nahas, G. G. (1982). Hashishi In Islam 9th to 18th Century. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 58(9), 814–831. Https://

Pacula, R. L., & Smart, R. (2017, May 8). Medical Marijuana and Marijuana Legalization. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13(1), 397–419. Https://

Salim, A. Al-M. (1940). Ta'ati al-Mukhaddirat wa al-Ittijar Fi-Ha wa al-Rabh Min-Ha (Drug use, trafficking, and profit from it). Dar Al-Ifta al-Misriyyah. Https://

Serjeant, R. B. (1972). Franz Rosenthal: The herb: hashish versus medieval Muslim society, [v], 212 pp. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971. Guilders 64. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 35(3), 633–636. Https://

Shabal, A. (2022). Al-Ifta' Tu'akkid Hurmah al-Hashish wa al-Birah, wa Hadha Hukm al-Qalil Min-ha (The Egyptian Fatwa Bodies confirms the sanctity of hashish () and beer, and this is the ruling on a few of them). Maswari. Https://لإفتاء-تؤكد-حرمة-الحشيش-والبيرة-وهذا-حكم-القليل-منها

State Medical Cannabis Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved September 27 2022, from

Tantawi, M. S. (2021, December 26). Hukm Tijarah al-Mukhaddirat wa Ta’ati-Ha (Islamic Ruling on Drug Trading). Dar Al-Ifta’ al-Misriyyah. Https://

The Star Online. (2019a, November 28). Medical marijuana distributor's death sentence put on hold. The Star. Retrieved September 21 2022, from

The Star Online. (2019b, November 29). 'Dr Ganja' slapped with 36 drug-related charges. The Star. Retrieved September 21 2022, from

Tomida, I. (2004, May 1). Cannabinoids and glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 88(5), 708–713. Https://



How to Cite

Nordin, S. F., Omar, M. R., Fatimah Zanirah Nordin, & Hamdan, M. N. (2022). Medical Marijuana From Medicine, Legal And Islamic Law Perspective: A Review. Ulum Islamiyyah, 34(3), 1-13. Retrieved from