Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Capacities of Local Banana Peels Extract by Using Subcritical Water Extraction Technique

Main Article Content

Nur Akmal Ishak
Muhammad Yusuf Abdul Rashid
Nur Athirah Zabidi


Banana peels has been shown to possess strong antioxidant which may exhibit protective responses against reactive oxygen species through free radicals scavenging and breaking the autoxidative chain reaction and restore the ‘redox homeostasis’ state. Subcritical water extraction method was used by using water as the solvent and increasing the temperature to between 100 and 374°C and keeping the pressure high enough to maintain the liquid state allowing the dielectric constant (ε) of water becomes like that of an organic solvent, like ethanol or methanol. The extract was collected by using temperatures of 100 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C with 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes for the investigation of antioxidative compounds and antioxidant activity. The TPC ranged widely from 20.93 to 66.39 mg GAE/g for Pisang Tanduk and 43.64 to 151.40 mg GAE/g for Pisang Cavendish peel extract. While TFC of Pisang Tanduk ranged from 1.94 to 17.19 RE/g and for Pisang Cavendish it was as low from 3.80 to as high as 72.45 RE/g. Radical scavenging activities (inhibition of DPPH) of the extracts ranged from 36.96 to 85.60% for Pisang Tanduk and from 52.26 to 93.68%. Inhibition of ABST scavenging activity showed 97.14 to 99.03% inhibition for Pisang Tanduk. For Pisang Cavendish, it showed from 73.02 to 98.86% inhibition. Although both banana peel extracts appeared to have low TPC and TFC, its antioxidant activities were ranked moderate to high. This implies that antioxidative compounds other than phenolics and flavonoids were probably responsible for inhibition of DPPH.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ishak, N. A., Abdul Rashid, M. Y., & Zabidi, N. A. (2019). Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Capacities of Local Banana Peels Extract by Using Subcritical Water Extraction Technique. Ulum Islamiyyah, 26, 19-30.
Author Biographies

Nur Akmal Ishak, Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan

Muhammad Yusuf Abdul Rashid, Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan

Nur Athirah Zabidi, Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan


Ahmed, Z. Ben, Yousfi, M., Viaene, J., Dejaegher, B., Demeyer, K., Mangelings, D., & Vander Heyden, Y. (2018). Potentially antidiabetic and antihypertensive compounds identified from Pistacia atlantica leaf extracts by LC fingerprinting. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 149, 547–556.
Alara, O. R., Abdurahman, N. H., & Olalere, O. A. (2017). Ethanolic extraction of flavonoids, phenolics and antioxidants from Vernonia amygdalina leaf using two-level factorial design. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 1–10.
Alothman, M., Bhat, R. and Karim, A.A. 2009. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chemistry 115: 785-788.
Almeida, M. M. B., de Sousa, P. H. M., Arriaga, Â. M. C., do Prado, G. M., Magalhães, C. E. de C., Maia, G. A., & de Lemos, T. L. G. (2011). Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh exotic fruits from northeastern Brazil. Food Research International, 44(7), 2155–2159.
Amir Hamzah, N. A., Morad, N. A., Nordin, M. F. M., Ilia Anisa, A. N., & Yusof, Y. A. M. (2017). Effect of extraction time and temperature on the extraction of phenolic compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus leaves. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11(3), 15–21.
Asl, A. H., & Khajenoori, M. (2013). Subcritical Water Extraction. Mass Transfer - Advances in Sustainable Energy and Environment Oriented Numerical Modeling, 459–487. 481
Baharuddin, N. A. ., Nordin, M. F. ., Morad, N. A., & Rasidek, N. . (2017). Pressurized hot water extraction of phenolic and antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutan leaves using accelerated solvent extractor. AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCES, 56–63.
Basma, A. A., Zakaria, Z., Latha, L. Y., & Sasidharan, S. (2011). Antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of the methanol extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4(5), 386–390.
Chowtivannakul, P., Srichaikul, B., & Talubmook, C. (2016). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of seed extract from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 50(5), 357–361.
Clarke, G., Ting, K., Wiart, C., & Fry, J. (2013). High Correlation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical Scavenging, Ferric Reducing Activity Potential and Total Phenolics Content Indicates Redundancy in Use of All Three Assays to Screen for Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Plants from the M. Antioxidants, 2(1), 1–10.
Fatemeh, S. R., Saifullah, R., Abbas, F. M. A., & Azhar, M. E. (2012). Total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of banana pulp and peel flours: Influence of variety and stage of ripeness. International Food Research Journal, 19(3), 1041–1046.
Fitriani, A. (2015). Antidiabetic Activity of Banana Peel Extract : Effect on Hyperglycemia , Hyperlipidemia and Augmented Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus, 17, 2010–2012.
Gonzalez-Montelongo, R. M., Gloria Lobo, G. and Gonzalez, M. 2010a. Antioxidant activity in banana peel extracts: Testing extraction conditions and related bioactive compounds. Food Chemistry 119: 1030-1039.
Gonzalez-Montelongo, R. M., Gloria Lobo, G. and Gonzalez, M. 2010b. The effect of extraction temperature, time and number of steps on the antioxidant capacity of methanolic banana peel extracts. Separation and Purification Technology 71: 347–355
Hawthorne, S. B., Grabanski, C. B., Martin, E., & Miller, D. J. (2000). Comparisons of Soxhlet Exraction, Pressurised Liquid Extraction, Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Subcritical Water Extraction for Enviromental Solid: Recovery, selectivity and effects on
Sample Matrix. Journal of Chromatography A, 892(892), 421–433.
Herrero, M., M. Plaza and A. Cifuentes, 2010. Green processes for the extraction of bioactives from Rosemary : Chemical and functional characterization via ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and in-vitro assays, 1217: 2512-2520.
Hiba, N., Rajha, Walter Ziegler, Nicolas Louka, Zeina Hobaika, Eugene Vorobiev, Herbert G. Boechzelt, and Richard G. Maroun, 2014. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 15: 18640-18658; doi:10.3390/ijms151018640.
Huang, D., Ou, B. and Prior, R.L. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assay. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 1841-1856.
Ismail, H. F., Hashim, Z., Soon, W. T., Rahman, N. S. A., Zainudin, A. N., & Majid, F. A. A. (2017). Comparative study of herbal plants on the phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activities and toxicity on cells and zebrafish embryo. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 7(4), 452–465.
Jaiswal, A. K., & Abu-Ghannam, N. (2013). Degradation kinetic modelling of color, texture, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of York cabbage after microwave processing. Food Research International (Vol. 53).
Khalil, E. A. M. (2004). Antidiabetic effect of an aqueous extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 16(September), 92–99.
Kondo, S., Kittikorn, M. and Kanlayanarat, S. 2005. Preharvest antioxidant activities of tropical fruit and the effect of low temperature storage on antioxidants and jasmonates. Postharvest Biology and Technology 36: 309–318.
Lee, E. H., Yeom, H. J., Ha, M. S., & Bae, D. H. (2010). Development of banana peel jelly and its antioxidant and textural properties. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19(2), 449–455.
Lusia Barek, M., Hasmadi, M., Zaleha, A. Z., & Mohd Fadzelly, A. B. (2015). Effect of different drying methods on phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of unfermented and fermented teas from Sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans Lind.) leaves. International Food Research Journal, 22(2), 661–670.
Machmudah, S. (2015). Subcritical Water Extraction of Xanthone from Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana Linn) Pericarp. Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering, 05(01), 1–6.
Obafemi, T. O., Akinmoladun, A. C., Olaleye, M. T., Agboade, S. O., & Onasanya, A. A. (2017). Antidiabetic potential of methanolic and flavonoid-rich leaf extracts of Synsepalum dulcificum in type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 8(4), 238–246.
Okoh, S., Asekun, O., Familoni, O., & Afolayan, A. (2014). Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Seed and Shell Essential Oils Extracted from Abrus precatorius (L). Antioxidants, 3(2), 278–287.
Okonogi, S., Duangrat, C., Anuchpreeda, S., Tachakittirungrod, S. and Chowwanapoonphon, S. 2007 Comparison of antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicities of certain fruit peel. Food Chemistry 103: 839-846.
PB PAPDI. 2013. A Practical Guide Insulin Therapy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Accessed on September 12, 2014 from:
Pintać, D., Majkić, T., Torović, L., Orčić, D., Beara, I., Simin, N., … Lesjak, M. (2018). Solvent selection for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from grape pomace. Industrial Crops and Products, 111(November 2017), 379–390.
Rattanavichai, W., & Cheng, W. (2014). Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit’s peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 39(2), 326–335.
Rodríguez-Meizoso, I., F.R. Marin, M. Herrero, F.J.S eñorans, G. Reglero, A. Cifuentes and E. Ibáñez, 2006. Subcritical water extraction of nutraceuticals with antioxidant activity from oregano. Chemical and functional characterization. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41(5): 1560-1565.
Schmidt, M. M., Prestes, R. C., Kubota, E. H., Scapin, G., & Mazutti, M. A. (2015). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts of banana inflorescences (Musa cavendishii). CYTA - Journal of Food, 13(4), 498–505.
Selvamuthukumaran, M., & Shi, J. (2017). Recent advances in extraction of antioxidants from plant by-products processing industries. Food Quality and Safety, 1(1), 61–81.
Someya, S., Yoshiki, Y. and Okubo, K. 2002. Antioxidant compounds from banana (Musa Cavendish). Food Chemistry 79: 351-354.
Subagio, A., Morita, N. and Sawada, S. 1996. Carotenoids and their fatty-acid esters in banana peel. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 42(6): 553–566.
Sultana, B., Anwar, F., Asi, M.R. and Chatha, S.A.S. 2008. Antioxidant potential of extracts from different agro wastes: stabilization of corn oil. Grasas y Aceites 59 (3): 205-217.
Von Loesecke H W. Bananas (2nd ed.). New York: Interscience. 1950; pp.52−66
Wang, Z. (2011). Extract of Phenolics From Pomegranate Peels. The Open Food Science Journal, 5(1), 17–25.
Yan, L., Cao, Y., & Zheng, G. (2017). Optimization of subcritical water extraction of phenolic antioxidants from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel by response surface methodology.