Ulum Islamiyyah 2019-05-24T09:33:18+00:00 Dr. Ahmad Zaki Salleh Open Journal Systems <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/adminuij/Cover_Test_New3.png"></p> <p align="justify">&nbsp;</p> The Roles of Corporate Governance Towards Value-Oriented Islamic Finance Practices 2019-05-24T09:33:18+00:00 Zulkifli Hasan, Associate Professor Dr. <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>This paper argues that while significant concerns have been invoked on the material aspects of Islamic finance such as financial growth and products sophistication, it is nevertheless observed that equal emphasizes have not been given on social objectives of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs) as part of its value-oriented frameworks. In the absence of extensive discourse on corporate governance and its roles on CSR, this paper attempts to highlight the importance of corporate governance in stimulating the social function of IFIs within the Islamic ethical dimension paradigm. This paper aims at expanding the normative objective function of IFIs by advocating corporate social responsibility (CSR) via strengthening the corporate governance framework. Unlike the western concept of corporate governance, which is based on the western business morality that derived from “secular humanist”, this paper suggests that corporate governance in IFIs is founded on the epistemological aspect of Tawhid, Shari’ah and ethics. </em><em>This paper employs theoretical and case study research method to develop understanding and to advocate the notion of value oriented Islamic finance practices. The study utilizes descriptive, comparative and critical analysis approaches in extracting and analyzing the information. </em></p> 2019-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Arabic Should Not Be Cast As Heritage: Arabic Lives 2019-05-24T09:33:16+00:00 Nadia Selim <p style="text-align: justify;">Language acquisition research often conceives of language learners in terms of linguistic proficiency and perhaps assigns them a position on a continuum with the native speaker at one end and the <em>foreign language learner</em> on the other. The <em>heritage language learner </em>falls somewhere between these two extremes and often shares a deep affiliation with the language that can be ethnically, historically, culturally or religiously driven or they may share a multifaceted affiliation with the language. <em>Arabic heritage language learners</em> typically include Arabs of any religious or non-religious affiliation and non-Arab Muslims. Research has considered various matters associated with <em>Arabic heritage language learners</em> that range from differences in their motivations to language maintenance within communities. However, research on Arabic has not really considered the implications of the term <em>heritage</em> itself. This paper will critically examine the term <em>heritage language learner</em> and argue that it is problematic due to the inherent implications of the word “heritage” which can contribute to the perpetuation of linguistic hegemony and result in language loss. Consequently, the paper recommends the use of alternative terms.</p> 2019-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Critique of Feminism on Traditional Christian Theology: An Analysis from Qur’ānic Perspective 2019-05-24T09:33:17+00:00 Adibah Abdul Rahim Nadzrah Ahmad <p style="text-align: justify;">The study attempts to highlight feminists’ critics against traditional Christian theology on women. Traditional Cristian theology or known as Biblical or Christian patriarchy by the feminists has allegedly been studied and comprehended from a patriarchal perspective of male dominance hence misrepresentation of female scriptural image within the Bible. In this study, feminists’ critics on issue pertaining to women in the Bible were selected and analyzed its specifics before scrutinized further from Qur’anic point of view. The study finds that despite the feminists’ claim of image defamation of women in the Bible, the Qur’ān on the other hand represented its female subjects in the most acceptable non-discriminative manner. Women as depicted in the Qur’ān were purged of any offensive and denounced outcomes of their own existence and nature. Utilizing scriptural-textual analysis method, the study embarks on deriving points of comparison between the two scriptures highlighting agreements and discrepancies of both texts.</p> 2019-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring Ibn Khaldun’s Views On The Religious Roles Towards Happiness: A Study Of Religionswissenschaft In The Muqaddimah 2019-05-24T09:33:15+00:00 Wan Mohd Fazrul Azdi Wan Razali, Dr. Jaffary Awang, Associate Professor Dr. <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Religionswissenschaft</em> or the study of religion is an attempt to understand various aspects of religion, especially through the use of other intellectual disciplines. The Muqaddimah is principally meant to be an introduction to the voluminous text of history, namely Kitab al-<sup>c</sup>Ibar. Yet, the creation of Muqaddimah includes information on the study of human, which simultaneously includes information and views on religions. There are many views on religion highlighted by Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah. These views on religion mostly describe the roles of religion in human life as found through his sociohistorical approach of <sup>c</sup>Umrān science. Through the use of qualitative content analysis on Muqaddimah text, this study found that there is a focus made by Ibn Khaldun in his views on religion, namely religion and happiness. This article explores Ibn Khaldun’s views on religion and its roles for human happiness. Many modern scholars of religious study have shared their views on religious roles towards happiness. These modern views came from scholars of many religious backgrounds such as the atheists, seculars and religionists. In the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun pronounces his understanding of happiness, which are not divorced from the religious teachings and practices. This article purports to highlight Ibn Khaldun’s views on religious roles towards happiness, which focusing on Ibn Khaldun’s justifications and rationalizations for such religious roles. From findings on Ibn Khaldun’s views on religious roles towards happiness, this article suggests that Ibn Khaldun’s rationalizations for such religious roles determine his thought style that is integrative (naqlī-<sup>c</sup>aqlī) or in tawhidic manner. This article proposes that Muqaddimah is supposed to be taken as a representative of Islamic thought in the midst of many references for religious study, especially in encountering various present views on religious roles in human’s life.</p> 2019-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Kedudukan Hadis Iftirāq al-Ummah Menurut Neraca Para Ulama Hadis 2019-05-24T09:33:11+00:00 Mohd Zohdi Mohd Amin, Associate Professor Dr. Ahamad Asmadi Sakat, Associate Professor Dr. A. Irwan Santeri Doll Kawaid, Dr. <p style="text-align: justify;">The division of Muslims into 73 sects was revealed by the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and it is reported in a hadith, known as hadith of <em>Iftirāq al-Ummah</em>. This hadith clarifies the existence of one of the sects which is in the right path, named <em>al-Firqah al-Nājiyah</em>, whilst the rest of the sects are described as unjust sects and Allah SWT promised them Hell. Consequently, there are sects claiming themselves to be the <em>al-Firqah al-Nājiyah</em> and labelling the others who are not in agreement with them as unrighteous. This circumstance evoked certain parties to reject this hadith because it is thought to be the root of schisms and disunity of the people. The rejection of the hadith however should be based on the strength and weakness of the reliance on the hadith’s <em>sanad</em> and does not rely solely on the assumption of <em>Illah</em>’s existence from the <em>sanad</em>’s meaning.&nbsp; Hence, this qualitative study was conducted upon 33 reports of hadith <em>Iftirāq al-Ummah</em> from 14 <em>sahabahs</em> of Prophet Muhammad. The evaluation is made based on the discussions among the trustworthy scholars of hadith by analyzing the chain of narrators and the relation between the chains of narrators. The study found that this hadith was reported from five <em>sahabah</em> r.a which was originally at <em>hasan</em> level and could be upgraded to <em>sahih</em> level with the assistance of <em>shawahid</em> from the report of five narrations of <em>sahabah</em>. Each of the narration supported and strengthen each other. Whereas the rest of the narrations are not escaped from flaws and weaknesses of the narrators. <em>Sahih </em>level of narrations explained that <em>al-Firqah al-Nājiyah</em> was <em>al-Jama‘ah</em> and <em>al-Sawad al-A‘zam</em>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Perpecahan umat Islam kepada 73 puak telah diberitakan oleh Rasulullah melalui sebuah hadis yang dikenali sebagai hadis <em>Iftirāq al-Ummah</em>. Hadis ini menjelaskan bahawa wujudnya satu puak yang berada dalam kebenaran (<em>al-Firqah al-Nājiyah</em>), manakala puak yang selebihnya disifatkan sebagai puak yang sesat. Rentetan itu, terdapat puak yang mendakwa diri masing-masing sebagai <em>al-Firqah al-Nājiyah</em>, sekaligus melontar kesesatan terhadap pihak yang bertentangan dan berlainan aliran. Keadaan ini mendorong sesetengah pihak menolak hadis ini kerana dianggap sebagai punca perbalahan dan perpecahan umat. Sewajarnya penolakan sesebuah hadis perlulah berdasarkan kepada kekuatan dan kelemahan sandaran sanad hadis dan tidak semata-mata bergantung kepada sangkaan wujudnya <em>ʻillah</em> pada makna hadis. Justeru kajian kualitatif dijalankan terhadap 33 periwayatan hadis <em>Iftirāq al-Ummah</em> yang diriwayatkan melalui 14 orang para sahabat. Analisis sanad hadis dengan mengikut metode ahli hadis dijalankan terhadap rantaian sanad hadis di samping penilaian terhadap pertautan di antara sanad. Kajian mendapati bahawa sebahagian sanad hadis ini berada pada kedudukan hasan, dan dapat ditingkatkan ke tahap sahih dengan adanya <em>shawāhid </em>daripada lima periwayatan para sahabat. Setiap riwayat tersebut menguatkan di antara satu sama lain. Manakala riwayat yang selainnya tidak lekang daripada kecacatan dan kelemahan periwayatnya. Riwayat yang <em>sahih</em> menjelaskan bahawa <em>al-Firqah al-Nājiyah </em>ialah <em>al-Jamāʻah</em> dan <em>al-Sawād al-A'zam</em>.</p> 2019-05-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## التفسير الصوفي الإشاري ومقارنته بتفسير الإسماعيلية الباطنية والتفسير الصوفي النظري والتفسير العلمي الإشاري 2019-05-24T09:33:14+00:00 Mahyuddin Hashim, Dr. <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Tafsir Sufi al-Isyari</em> is the commentary related to the implied symbol behind the utterance of the Quran and not the explicit meanings. The purpose of this research is to define <em>Tafsir Sufi al-Isyari</em> and compare it with <em>Tafsir Batiniah, Tafsir Sufi </em>of Philosophy, and <em>Tafsir </em>Scientific<em> Ishari</em>. The researcher used comparison and critic methods to conduct this research. As a result, the opinion of Sufism experts about <em>Tafsir Sufi al-Isyari </em>is different with the exegesis of the Quran by <em>Batiniah</em>’s group. This is because, <em>Batiniah</em>’s group did not acknowledge outwardly of the Quran but they only acknowledge inwardly. Hence, they interpret the Quran internally by their bad intentions. However, Sufism expert recognize the outwardly of the Quran as they recognize the internal of the Quran. Moreover, this research also found that <em>Tafsir Sufi </em>of Philosophy is built by premise of philosophy that contain in the mind of <em>Sufi</em> at the early stage, then the Quranic verses is stated after that. As for <em>Tafsir Sufi al-Isyari</em> is not related to premise of philosophy, but it is related to the spiritual training which are performed by <em>Sufi</em> members. Besides that, <em>Tafsir </em>Scientific<em> al-Isyari</em> is the interpretation that contain signals related to the nature that can be found in the al-Quran. It is also the interpretation by symbol of modern knowledge and new discoveries. In contrast with <em>Tafsir Sufi al-Isyari</em>, it is the interpretation by hidden symbol that comes from the heart of righteousness, kindness and knowledge during recitation of the Quran.</p> <p style="text-align: right;">التفسير الصوفي الإشاري هو التفسير الذي يعتمد على استبطان خفايا الألفاظ دون توقف عند حدود ظواهرها المألوفة ومعانيها القاموسية. يهدف هذا البحث إلى تعريف التفسير الصوفي الإشاري ومقارنته بتفسير الإسماعيلية الباطنية والتفسير الصوفي النظري والتفسير العلمي الإشاري. وأما منهج هذه الدراسة فيعتمد على منهج المقارن والتحليلي النقدي. ومن نتائج هذه الدراسة أن التفسير الإشاري عند الصوفية يختلف فيما يراه الباطنية، ذلك لأن الباطنية لم يعترفوا بظاهر القرآن واعترفوا بالباطن فقط، وتعمدوا أن يفسروا الباطن على ما يتفق نواياهم السيئة. وأما الصوفية فقد اعترفوا بظاهر القرآن ولم يجحدوه، كما اعترفوا بباطنه. وبينت الدراسة أن التفسير الصوفي النظري ينبني على مقدمات فلسفية تنقدح في ذهن الصوفي أولا، ثم يُنزل القرآن عليها بعد ذلك. وأما التفسير الإشاري فلا يرتكز على مقدمات فلسفية، بل يرتكز على رياضة روحية يأخذ بها الصوفي نفسه. وكشفت الدراسة أن التفسير العلمي الإشاري هو الإشارات الجلية التي تتضمنها الآيات الكونية في القرآن الكريم والتي تشير إشارات واضحة إلى كثير من العلوم الحديثة الاكتشاف. وأما التفسير الصوفي الإشاري فهو الإشارات الخفية التي يدركها أهل التقوى والصلاح والعلم عند تلاوة القرآن الكريم، فتكون مواجيد لها معان.</p> 2019-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars In Islam 2019-05-24T09:33:13+00:00 Nur Saadah Hamisan@Khair, Dr. <p style="text-align: justify;">The book entitled <em>Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars in Islam</em> was written by Mohammad Akram Nadwi, and it was published by Interface Publications Ltd. in 2007. It was the result of a study of more than 15 years to produce 40 volumes of Muslim biographies of the women scholars of hadiths which were written in Arabic, and this book is an early introduction which was written in English. The author has explained in the pre-book as an introduction regarding the purpose of writing this book. It contains ten chapters. Each chapter is equipped with footnotes, and the list of references consists of classical sources (<em>turāth</em>) and Arabic manuscripts arranged alphabetically. Although this book is a preamble to the wider series of books, it was a great effort and has received a very positive response among readers. It is reasonable as compulsory reading material by the academicians and students who are directly involved in the field of Hadith, but it is also not too heavy to be used as general reading for the public who are keen to explore the culture of knowledge practiced by women who are known as <em>al-muḥaddithāt</em>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Buku yang berjudul Al-Muhaddithat: The Women Scholars in Islam aditulis oleh Mohammad Akram Nadwi, dan telah diterbitkan oleh&nbsp;Interface Publications Ltd. pada tahun 2007. Ia adalah hasil kajian selama lebih daripada 15 tahun untuk menghasilkan 40 jilid kamus biografi ulama wanita hadis Nabi yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab, dan buku ini merupakan pengenalan awal kepada kamus tersebut yang ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris. Hal ini dijelaskan di dalam pra kata buku sebagai pengenalan kepada tujuan buku ini ditulis. Ia mengandungi sepuluh bab. Dimulai dengan “Pendahuluan” sebelum bab pertama, dan diakhiri dengan “Rujukan” dan “Indeks”. Setiap bab dilengkapi dengan nota kaki, dan senarai rujukannya terdiri daripada sumber klasik (<em>turāth</em>) dan manuskrip Arab yang disusun mengikut abjad.&nbsp;Biarpun buku ini merupakan mukaddimah kepada siri buku yang lebih luas, ia merupakan usaha yang sangat besar dan telah pun mendapat respon yang sangat positif dalam kalangan pembaca. Ia wajar dijadikan bacaan wajib oleh para akademik dan pelajar yang terlibat secara langsung dalam bidang hadis, tetapi ia juga tidak begitu berat untuk dijadikan bacaan umum untuk orang awam yang berminat untuk mendalami budaya ilmu yang telah dipraktikkan oleh para wanita yang bergelar <em>al-muḥaddithāt</em>.</p> 2019-05-17T08:20:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##