SAINS ISLAM VS SAINS BARAT: ANALISIS AMALAN DAN PERBANDINGAN
ISLAMIC SCIENCE VS WESTERN SCIENCE: PRACTICES AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

ALIAS AZHAR
Corresponding Author
Pusat Pengajian Undang-Undang, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
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ABSTRAK

Mengkaji perkembangan sains dalam ketamadunan manusia perlu meliputi perbincangan daripada dua aspek perkembangan iaitu dalam sejarah ketamadunan Islam dan keduanya ketamadunan Barat. Islam sebenarnya telah mengadakan suatu sintesis terpenting dalam sejarah peradaban insan. Perkembangan pesat ketamadunan Islam terbukti telah menyaingi tamadun- tamadun lain yang terdahulu dan yang terkemudian. Ini terhasil daripada selain kekuatan dalaman yang berpaksi kepada dua sumber dogmatik, iaitu al-Quran dan sunah yang melahirkan kegiatan intelektual Islam yang dinamis dan kreatif. Identiti sains Islam dapat dijelaskan dalam analisis epistemologinya yang secara langsung dapat memberikan gambaran dan matlamat serta kedudukan sains dalam Islam. Begitu juga dengan analisis kritis terhadap metodologi yang mempengaruhi cara-cara aplikasi dan adaptasi sains Islam mampu menerangkan dan menjelaskan imejnya tersendiri berbanding dengan sains Barat. Sains dan teknologi Islam mampu membina jentera canggih untuk mengatasi masalah dalam kehidupan, namun hasil garapan murni dan harmoni dengan alam sekeliling menjadikan penciptaan teknologi Islam lebih beretika dan sempurna. Realitinya ialah wujud perbezaan yang jelas tentang pendekatan Islam dan Barat terhadap pembangunan dan kemajuan pengajian sains. Perbandingan sains Islam dan Barat wujud perbezaan yang nyata di dalam konteks, epistemologi dan metodologi pengajian sains dalam ketamadunan sains. Secara umumnya, perbezaan falsafah sains atau sistem kepercayaan telah memberikan implikasi terbesar kepada kewujudan perbezaan daripada aspek perkembangan pengajian sains itu sendiri.

Kata kunci: sains Islam, sains Barat, metodologi saintifik, epistemologi ilmu, tamadun Islam


ABSTRACT

Reviewing the development of science in human civilization should include a discussion of two aspects of development which are  the history of Islamic civilization and Western civilization. Islam provides the most important synthesis in the history of human civilization. The rapid development of Islamic civilization has proven to be a worthy rival to other well-known and ancient  civilization. This is the result of  inner strength that was anchored by two sources of dogmatism, namely al-Quran and al-Sunnah, which gave birth to the Islamic intellectual and creative dynamic. The identity of Islamic science can be explained through the analysis of epistemology which can directly provide an overview and goalsof the position of science in Islam. Similarly, the critical analysis of the methodology that affect the application and adaptation of science can explain and clarify Islamic Science’s  own image in comparison to Western science. Islamic science and technology can build sophisticated machinery to address the problems in life, but the harmonious integration with the environment causes the invention to be more ethical and perfect. The reality is that a clear distinction exists between Islam and Western approaches to the development and progress of the study of science. The comparison of Islamic and Western science shows significant differences in context, epistemology and methodology of science education in the science of civilization. Generally, the difference of philosophy of science or belief system has given the biggest implication to the existence of differences in terms of the development of the study of science .

Keywords: Islamic science, science Western, scientific methodology, epistemology of knowledge, Islamic civilization

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